Notes on random stuff 4.9KB

Linux SysAdmin Notes

These notes were written with some prior knowledge of Linux and therefore may just represent some horrendous knowledge gaps of mine. Thanks to Dave from the tutoriaLinux yt-channel; check out his videos.

Basics terminal

pwd - print working directory
rmdir - remove dir (empty)
man program - manual
ls -s - symbolic link
head - first 10 lines of file (default)
tail - last 10 lines of file (default)
tail -f /var/log/dmesg - follow the ende of the file (useful for logs)
poweroff -- init 0 / init 6 - shutdown / restart
cp - copy
cd ../../.. - go up 3 directories
ls -lh - long list human readable
sudo -i - interactive root session
wc -l - count stuff
df -h - list mounted devices (human readable)
cut -d: -f2 - take some (piped) input, look for delimiter ":", take stuff from second field; so Key1: Value1 will return Value1 sort -bf - sort by first letter
uniq - print only unique
wc - word count
grep - searching, finding, filtering (powerful, learn more) which - shows the full path of (shell) commands whereis - where is a command (binary, source, manual) locate - find files by name
cat /etc/network/interfaces - list network devices/interfaces

Pipes and Redirection

| - pipe character
echo "hello world" > hello.txt - write things to file; truncates before writing
echo "hello world" >> hello.txt - appends output
there are three channels: 0 - Standard Input (STDIN), 1 - Standard Output (STDOUT) and 2 - Standard Error (STDERR)
to catch STDERR --> 2> (channel two), e.g. ls -lh someNoneExistingFile.txt 2> action.log
input redirection: mail -s "this is a test" thomas < message.txt
ps | less - show all processes and pipe it into the program less which shows big texts in way which is easy to navigate

&& - check if left command is successful, then execute the right command
ls file.txt && echo "Success." > Success
ls wrongfile.tct && echo "Success." > Error

vi basics

:wq! - write, quit, don't prompt me

Package management

apt-cache search ... - search for package (Ubuntu/Debian)
apt-get remove ... - remove package
apt-get autoremove - clean up unneeded packages


ps aux | grep "process name" - get info about process
kill PID - kill process (SIGTERM = 15) with specified PID
pkill -u USERNAME - kill process of user
nice -n 15 program - start a program with low priority (19 = lowest; -20 highest)
renice -5 PID - change niceness of process
/proc - directory of all processes which is managed by the kernel and holds all the information about processes


man hier - man page on filesystem hierarchy (overview on filesystem)
udevd - device daemon


  • /bin - binaries for applications
  • /boot - boot images
  • /dev - devices
  • /etc - configuration data for applications
  • /home
  • /lib / /lib64 - shared libraries
  • /mnt - mount
  • /proc - process directory (informations about running processes)
  • /opt - optional software, no clear convention using this
  • /sbin - system binaries
  • /tmp - temporary files, cleaned on restart
  • /usr - non-essential binaries
  • /var/log - system logs

absolute and relative paths: /home/user/downloads and downloads/

Filetypes (with flag/first bit on ls -l)

Regular file (-) Directory (d)
Character Device (c)
Block Device (b)
Local Domain Socket (s)
Named Pipe (p)
Symbolic Link (l)

File permissions

rwx rw- r-- - owner read/write/execute group read/write anyone read

chmod 777 - rwx for owner, group, anyone
chmod 666 - rw- for owner, group, anyone
chmod 444 - r-- for owner, group, anyone
chmod 000 - --- for owner, group, anyone

LXC (LinuX Containers)

when operating with LXC one should be root; even basic stuff like lxc-ls will need root privileges

/var/cache/lxc/distro - contains the cached images needed for creation of a LXC
/var/lib/lxc/ - contains files for every created container (including rootfs)
/var/lib/lxc/myfirstcontainer/config - config file (see man 5 lxc.container.conf

lxc-create -t ubuntu -n myfirstcontainer - type = ubuntu, name = myfirstcontainer; note: type takes host system defaults if not otherwise specified regarding architecture and what not; note further: will do a net install which is stored
lxc-ls --fancy - list running machines
lxc-start -n myfirstcontainer -d - start LXC in daemon mode; doesn't hog up the current shell session, starts in background; connect via SSH to IPV4
lxc-stop -n myfirstcontainer -k - stop plus kill
lxc-freeze -n myfirstcontainer - freezes the proccess
lxc-attach -n myfirstcontainer - attaches current shell to container (avoiding to SSH in)